來聊聊言論自由的事

posted Jul 18, 2020, 1:46 AM by Sophia Sophia   [ updated Jul 18, 2020, 2:33 AM ]

來聊聊言論自由的事 (文長燒腦慎)
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“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” -- S.G. Tallentyre
“我不同意你說的話,但我將捍衛你的話語權至死。”  -- 伏爾泰

雖然這句話並不是伏爾泰說的,但托假名人之口,這句流傳已久的話,現在被用來當成違法言論的擋箭牌,其中包括排外、仇外、種族歧視、種族仇恨等過去不能說或被法律明確禁止的話。人們能夠在有70~80分辨其中詭詐之術嗎?到2013年,YouTuber流量中有一半是機器人程式的欺詐流量。到2018,只有不到60%是真人流量了。Deepfake的技術應運而生之後,虛假的幻相世界已經從量的累積,進化到質變的深度。人類還有多少真正的言論自由?還能如何保持純潔的言論自由?
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人人都知道自己有言論自由,但言論自由的定義為何?
“人人享有言論自由,此乃《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》第十九(二)條所保障。 不過,言論自由並非絕對權利,可受到限制,但限制必須符合公約第十九(三)條:經法律規定,且為「尊重他人權利和名譽」、「保障國家安全或公共秩序、或公共衛生或風化」所必要。” 
這才是完整的 - 自由言論的範圍。
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換句話說,自由言論是有條件性的。
1. 「尊重他人權利和名譽」
2. 「保障國家安全或公共秩序、或公共衛生或風化」
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大家印象中的網路霸凌與口齒殺人,早已犯法了,但卻沒有受到任何刑責規範,為什麼呢?答案就不必談了。
這裡想針對一般鄉民的籍口來聊聊,你我和你我下一代會受到的網路霸凌與口齒殺人來談。為什麼談這個?因為人們都混淆了自由言論與網路霸凌與口齒殺人的界線,而不覺得自己在做網路霸凌與口齒殺人的事。
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舉例來說,看見一位交警站在路邊無視交通亂相自顧自的滑手機,被po網路討論。就事論事的討論交警為何有此行為 vs 直接對交警人身攻擊,這就是言論自由與網路霸凌的不同。有些人對於“評論”和“情緒化人身攻擊”是分不清楚的。只能拼命說些感謝交警的話,不能就事論事的討論事件,否則就是不愛國不愛交警刻薄不懂感恩不能歌功誦德不讓人舒服,理所當然要遭到圍剿攻擊。(聽來有沒有很熟悉?)
如果能夠客觀討論事件,或者可以發現交警也許需要協助,同時發生了其它大事,或者有人能夠就這件事提醒風險呢?
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最下面做個小測試,這是美國大一同學的簡單訓練。
這只是給學生做1~2小時的分辨邏輯思維陷阱的課程,如果網友們能答對以下7成問題(=10題),就算及格了。否則,就會成為錯誤資訊的幫手,甚至被有心人操作利用。人們有多少把握自己不會為它人做出錯誤的決定?
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美國有90%的人有高中學位,卻只有1/3的人有大學學位。
想想全國有2/3的人們沒有過分辨邏輯思維陷阱的訓練,有能力分辨邏輯思維陷阱的人中還有一半機率要用錯地方,公民投票的風險有多少?言論自由的風險有多少?
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亞洲人不興訓練這樣的能力,因為怕學生太聰明了很難控制?還是對人性沒有信心?一切憑感覺得話,下面的遊戲肯定很挫折了。這些分辨邏輯思維陷阱的特異功能能夠防身,避免對人對己做出誤判而傷人傷己。然而不想學會分辨邏輯思維陷阱的人們遠遠的超過預期,為什麼?因為學習分辨邏輯思維陷阱很困難吧?對於受高教育率接近100%的中台港人學習分辨邏輯思維陷阱有何困難?不是IQ困難,或者應該是EQ和GQ困難,還有利益問題。這是心性問題,不是能力問題。
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心性問題,絕對是言論自由偏性的駕馭者。
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-- 蘇菲亞寫身心靈的心
#言論自由的邏輯思維陷阱

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[先簡單簡介幾個最常見邏輯思維陷阱的術語]
1.Hasty Generalization 倉促概括
2.Missing the Point 錯失了重點
3.Post hoc 錯誤的因(會造成錯誤的果)
4.Slippery Slope 錯誤的連鎖反應
5.Weak Analogy 弱類比
6.Appeal to Authority 訴諸權威
7.Appeal to Pity 呼籲憐憫
8.Appeal to Ignorance 呼籲無知
9.Straw Man 誇大其詞
10.Red Herring 分散注意力
11.False Dichotomy 錯誤的二分法
12.Begging the Question 乞求問題(要求讀者僅接受結論而不提供真實證據)
13.Equivocation 模棱兩可

[開始玩玩看能做對幾題?]
Can you name this Fallacy?
1) It is ridiculous to have spent thousands of dollars to rescue those two whales trapped in the Arctic ice. Why, look at all the people trapped in jobs they don’t like.

2) Plagiarism is deceitful because it is dishonest.

3) Water fluoridation affects the brain. Citywide, students’ test scores began to drop five months after fluoridation began.

4) I know three redheads who have terrible tempers, and since Annabel has red hair, I’ll bet she has a terrible temper too.

5) Supreme Court Justice Byron White was an All-American football player while in college, so how can you say that athletes are dumb?

6) Why should we put people on trial when we know they are guilty?

7) You support capital punishment just because you want an “eye for an eye,” but I have several good reasons to believe that capital punishment is fundamentally wrong…

8) The meteorologist predicted the wrong amount of rain for May. Obviously the meteorologist is unreliable.

9) You know Jane Fonda’s exercise videos must be worth the money. Look at the great shape she’s in.

10) We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!

11) The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better. The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount, so it would probably help me understand my finances as well. 

12) Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while.

13) I'm positive that my work will meet your requirements. I really need a job since my grandmother is sick. 

14) Crimes of theft and robbery have been increasing at an alarming rate lately. The conclusion is obvious, we must reinstate the death penalty immediately. 

15) I'm not a doctor, but I play one on the hit series "Bimbos and Studmuffins in the OR." You can take it from me that when you need a fast-acting, effective, and safe pain killer there is nothing better than MorphiDope 2000. That is my considered medical opinion. 
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[answer] 
1. RED HERRING
2. BEGGING THE QUESTION
3. POST HOC (false cause)
4. HASTY GENERALIZATION
5. HASTY GENERALIZATION
6. BEGGING THE QUESTION
7. STRAW MAN
8. HASTY GENERALIZATION
9. POST HOC (false cause)
10. SLIPPERY SLOPE
11. WEAK ANALOGY
12. FALSE DICHOTOMY (Dilemma)
13, APPEAL TO PITY
14. MISSING THE POINT 
15. APPEAL TO AUTHORITY
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